Explaining the Lamb shift in classical terms

Corona-virus is bad, but it does have one advantage: more time to work on my hobby ! I finally managed to have a look at what the (in)famous Lamb shift may or may not be. Here is the link to the paper.

I think it’s good. Why? Well… It’s that other so-called ‘high precision test’ of mainstream quantum mechanics (read: quantum field theory)m but so I found it’s just like the rest: ‘Cargo Cult Science.’ [I must acknowledge a fellow amateur physicist and blogger for that reference: it is, apparently, a term coined by Richard Feynman!]

To All: Enjoy and please keep up the good work in these very challenging times !

🙂

Making sense of it all

In recent posts, we have been very harsh in criticizing mainstream academics for not even trying to make sense of quantum mechanics—labeling them as mystery wallahs or, worse, as Oliver Consa does, frauds. While we think the latter criticism is fully justified –we can and should think of some of the people we used to admire as frauds now – I think we should also acknowledge most of the professional physicists are actually doing what we all are doing and that is to, somehow, try to make sense of it all. Nothing more, nothing less.

However, they are largely handicapped: we can say or whatever we write, and we do not need to think about editorial lines. In other words: we are free to follow logic and practice real science. Let me insert a few images here to lighten the discussion. One is a cartoon from the web and the other was sent to me by a friendly academic. As for the painting, if you don’t know him already, you should find out for yourself. 🙂

Both mainstream as well as non-mainstream insiders and outsiders are having very heated discussions nowadays. When joining such discussions, I think we should start by acknowledging that Nature is actually difficult to understand: if it would be easy, we would not be struggling with it. Hence, anyone who wants you to believe it actually all is easy and self-evident is a mystery wallah or a fraud too—at the other end of the spectrum!

For example, I really do believe that the ring current model of elementary particles elegantly combines wave-particle duality and, therefore, avoids countless dichotomies (such as the boson-fermion dichotomy, for example) that have hampered mankind’s understanding of what an elementary particle might actually be. At the same time, I also acknowledge that the model raises its own set of very fundamental questions (see our paper on the nature of antimatter and some other unresolved issues) and can, therefore, be challenged as well. In short, I don’t want to come across as being religious about our own interpretation of things because it is what it is: an interpretation of things we happen to believe in. Why? Because it happens to come across as being more rational, simpler or – to use Dirac’s characterization of a true theory – just beautiful.

So why are we having so much trouble accepting the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics? Why are we so shocked by Consa’s story on man’s ambition in this particular field of human activity—as opposed to, say, politics or business? It’s because people like you and me thought these men were like us—much cleverer, perhaps, but, otherwise, totally like us: people searching for truth—or some basic version of it, at least! That’s why Consa’s conclusion hurts us so much:

“QED should be the quantized version of Maxwell’s laws, but it is not that at all. […] QED is a bunch of fudge factors, numerology, ignored infinities, hocus-pocus, manipulated calculations, illegitimate mathematics, incomprehensible theories, hidden data, biased experiments, miscalculations, suspicious coincidences, lies, arbitrary substitutions of infinite values and budgets of 600 million dollars to continue the game.”

Amateur physicists like you and me thought we were just missing something: some glaring (in)consistency in their or our theories which we just couldn’t see but that, inevitably, we would suddenly stumble upon while wracking our brains trying to grind through it all. We naively thought all of the sleepless nights, all the agony and all the sacrifices in terms of time and trouble would pay off, one day, at least! But, no, we’ve been wasting countless years to try to understand something which one can’t understand anyway—something which is, quite simply, not true. It was nothing but a bright shining lie and our anger is, therefore, fully justified. It sure did not do much to improve our mental and physical well-being, did it?

Such indignation may be justified but it doesn’t answer the more fundamental question: why did we even bother? Why are we so passionate about these things? Why do we feel that the Copenhagen interpretation cannot be right? One reason, of course, is that we were never alone here. The likes of Einstein, Dirac, and even Bell told us all along. Now that I think of it, all mainstream physicists that I know are critical of us – amateur physicists – but, at the same time, are also openly stating that the Standard Model isn’t satisfactory—and I am really thinking of mainstream researchers here: the likes of Zwiebach, Hossenfelder, Smolin, Gasparan, Batelaan, Pohl and so many others: they are all into string theory or, else, trying to disprove this or that quantum-mechanical theorem. [Batelaan’s reseach on the exchange of momentum in the electron double-slit experiment, for example, is very interesting in this regard.]

In fact, now that I think of it: can you give me one big name who is actually passionate about the Standard Model—apart from one or two Nobel Prize winners who got an undeserved price for it? If no one thinks it can be  right, then why can’t we just accept it just isn’t?

I’ve come to the conclusion the ingrained abhorrence – both of professional as well as of amateur physicists – is rooted in this: the Copenhagen interpretation amounts to a surrender of reason. It is, therefore, not science, but religion. Stating that it is a law of Nature that even experts cannot possibly understand Nature “the way they would like to”, as Richard Feynman put it, is both intuitively as well as rationally unacceptable.

Intuitively—and rationally? That’s a contradictio in terminis, isn’t it? We don’t think so. I think this is an outstanding example of a locus in our mind where intuition and rationality do meet each other.

Matter and antimatter

Matter and anti-matter: what’s the difference? The charge, of course: positive versus negative. Yes. Of course! But what’s beyond? Our ring current model offers a geometric explanation, so we thought we might try our hand at offering a geometric explanation of the difference between matter and anti-matter too. Have a look at the paper. It’s kinda primitive, but I need to start somewhere, right? 🙂

The metaphysics of physics

I just produced a first draft of the Metaphysics page of my new physics site. It does not only deal with the fundamental concepts we have been developing but – as importantly, if not more – it also offers some thoughts on all of the unanswered questions which, when trying to do science and be logical, are at least as important as the questions we do consider to be solved. Click the link or the tab. Enjoy ! 🙂 As usual, feedback is more than welcome!

What’s the spin of spin-1/2 particles?

You may think this is a rather poor joke: the spin of spin-1/2 particles must be 1/2, right?

Right. Yes. Let me ask you this: one half of what? What’s the unit here? And why would we take half of it?

If you are a somewhat informed reader, you’ll will be able to answer this: it’s a half-unit of Planck’s (reduced) quantum of action. It must be, right? Spin is expressed in units of ħ/2, isn’t it?

Right. Or not so bad as an answer, at least. Next question: if the Planck-Einstein relation tells us that physical action must come in full (not in half) units of h (we have no need for an E = hf/2 or E = hω/2 relation, do we?), then why would angular momentum (because that’s spin – orbital or spin angular momentum – if you express it in units of ħ or ħ/2, isn’t it?) come in half-units of ħ?

It is just one of those quantum-mechanical rules one cannot really understand, isn’t it? And so we should just accept it and go along with the rest of the story, isn’t it?

Well… No! We don’t agree. It’s not just one of those rules: we should understand what this is about. And the good news is this: we can. Moreover, it is actually not all that difficult. We’ve got the answers: check out our new blog. 🙂

PS: I should apologize to early readers of the Matter page of this site. I had to re-write it a few times before it took its current shape. It should be a much better read now. Let me know what you think of it! Cheers – JL

New physics…

In my previous post, I wrote about the End of Physics. Of course, we need to replace the Old Physics by the new. I have structured a new website (ideez.org), and created the very first page for it. It is probably the most fundamental one, as it deals with all of the matter-particles: it uses the ring current model to explain their geometry which – in turn – explains all of their intrinsic properties. No magic here ! Or… Well… Maybe it’s the right kind of magic ! No Bright Shining Lies, in any case ! Enjoy ! JL

The End of Physics?

I just uploaded an update of my 10-page summary of what—paraphrasing Wittgenstein—I think might be the case. 🙂 So what’s that? It’s a basic description of what I think of as reality—at the most fundamental level, that is—in terms of a concise set of (classical) equations that speak to us (or to me, I should say). Needless to say, that set of classical equations includes an interpretation of the Planck-Einstein relation: E = h·f or E·T = h, in which T is interpreted as the cycle time of a particle.

The reader who hasn’t read me before will probably raise his (or her?) eyebrows here: the cycle time of a particle? Seriously? What do you mean by that?

Well… I won’t try to explain, really. The gist of it is this: think of it as a clock. The frequency of that clock is either on or off—relative to what we may refer to as some fundamental frequency of spacetime. If it’s on (the same frequency), our particle will be stable. If not, it will disintegrate into stable(r) constituents—electrons, protons, photons or neutrinos. Or—if we’re talking much larger conglomerates falling apart—some stable configuration of them: think of a neutron inside a nucleus, a hydrogen atom, a simple naked nucleus, or an actual atom (but here we’re entering the realm of chemistry—as opposed to elementary physics).

As a result, the paper has become a bit longer. Well… More than a bit, perhaps: it’s 20-25 pages now. The point is this: I feel it’s pretty complete, but I am left with the following issues and questions—or ‘clusters of analysis’ as I’d say in my line of business (which is finance and project management—not QM!):

  1. Is the (electric) charge inside an electron – and a proton—any matter-particle, really – a fractal structure or not?
  2. What is the nature of the ‘stronger’ force inside of the proton: I vaguely distinguish between the fundamental frequency and one or more higher modes of spacetime – but that needs to be ‘translated’ into a better ‘visual’ image of what might or might not be going on.
  3. Electron-positron pair creation/annihilation. Or—more generally speaking—the question of the fundamental nature of anti-matter in general.

I have a few preliminary thoughts on that, but I’d like to invite comments—because I am really puzzled by the above and talking about it surely helps! My guts instinct tells me this:

1. The idea of the zbw charge inside matter-particles being some fractal structure is appealing and not. It’s appealing because the radius of the zbw charge inside a proton must be smaller than the classical electron radius – so some fractal structure (to explain the origin of mass) is definitely something to consider.

—But then it’s also not appealing because it keeps that ambiguity: is Nature continuous or not? Is a charge some finite structure or not? Perhaps we should just accept the idea of a charge combines all of our concepts: force, mass—and the idea of (in)definiteness? 🙂

[I am joking and then I am not: I often feel the Uncertainty Principle is where the Pope thinks God might be hiding, so if we abolish that, the Vatican will need something else, right?]

2. The idea of the ‘strong’ (or ‘stronger’) force grabbing onto the same charge (i.e. the electric charge) is great because it greatly simplifies the analysis. The idea of a strong force grabbing onto a strong charge is appealing (we had already invented a unit for the strong charge) but it hugely complicates our thinking of the proton as some unitary particle. Why? Think of this question: what force grabs on what charge, and how exactly, and how do the two charges then relate to each other?  – no strong charge needed! I really must thank Giorgio Vassallo here for pointing out I should try to simplify as much as possible when thinking about the QCD sector. [I hope Dr. Vassallo appreciates the compliment—can’t be sure of that coz he’s rather taciturn. :-)]

3. The third of the three questions is the most difficult one. From all of Dirac’s formal or informal remarks on the state of our knowledge, it’s clear he struggled very much with that too. The gist of the matter is this: our world could be an anti-matter world. We may think of that as a mathematical fiction: who cares if we write q or −q in our equations? No one, right? It’s just a convention, and so we can just swap signs, right?

Well… No. Dirac had noticed the mathematical possibility early on—in 1928, to be precise, as soon as he had published his equation for the free electron. He said this about it in his 1933 Nobel Prize Lecture:

“If we accept the view of complete symmetry between positive and negative electric charge so far as concerns the fundamental laws of Nature, we must regard it rather as an accident that the Earth (and presumably the whole solar system), contains a preponderance of negative electrons and positive protons.”

The carefully chosen ‘preponderance’ term shows he actually did imagine some stars could possibly be made of anti-matter, and he said as much in the very same lecture:

“It is quite possible that for some of the stars it is the other way about, these stars being built up mainly of positrons and negative protons. […] The two kinds of stars would both show exactly the same spectra, and there would be no way of distinguishing them by present astronomical methods.”

Strangely enough, he doesn’t mention Carl D. Anderson who – just the previous year (1932) – had actually found the trace of an actual positron on one of his cloud chamber pictures of what happens to cosmic radiation when it enters… Well… Anderson’s cloud chamber. 🙂 Anderson got his own Nobel Prize for it – and one that’s very well deserved (the reader who’s read our previous posts will know we have serious doubts on the merit of some (other) Nobel Prizes).

The point is this: we should not think of matter and anti-matter as being ‘separate worlds’ (theoretical and/or physical). No. Pair creation/annihilation should be part and parcel of our ‘world view’ (read: our classical explanation of quantum physics). So what can/should we do with this?

[…]

Nothing at all, perhaps. If we stare at the equations long enough, they all start making sense after a while, don’t they? Especially when enjoying a Belgian beer or a good glass of wine. Feynman quoted an unknown poet in one of his introductory lectures to his Lectures:

“The whole universe is in a glass of wine.”

Again, after having deified Feynman for decades, I regret to say that I now have to think of Richard Feynman as being a very complicated personality defending mainstream thought rather than trying to revolutionize scientific thought. :-/ Having said that, I still fully agree with most of his metaphorical statements, and the one above surely tops my list. 🙂

Freeman Dyson’s death

As we are doing stupid stuff anyway – like writing to the Nobel Prize Committee – I thought I should just go all the way, and finally contact the man who must know the truth on whether or not mainstream QM is just a gigantic hoax: a sophisticated mass deception effort—think of it as a PR stunt to keep big tech projects going!

The name of the man is Freeman Dyson. He’s the last man standing of the post-WW II generation which I now refer to as the Mystery Wallahs. He’s 96, I think.

[…]

Oh hell ! I just checked: he passed away too. Just 10 days ago, on 28 February 2020. He died, apparently, from the complications from a fall in the cafeteria in Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Studies, from which I got his email address. This is plain eerie: I was writing to a dead man ! :-/

I did not receive any error or other message. I guess they haven’t deactivated his email account yet. :-/

[…]

Post scriptum—or my obituary, I guess: Despite the rather romantic image of Freeman Dyson as the crazy iconoclastic or ‘heretic’ scientist (he never bothered to get a PhD, for example), I do not associate him with anything good—if only because of his stance on climate change, and I thank the NY Times journalist who wrote his obituary for writing what should be written here:

“He doubted the veracity of the climate models, and he exasperated experts with sanguine predictions they found rooted less in science than in wishfulness: Excess carbon in the air is good for plants, and global warming might forestall another ice age.”

That should generate enough dislike, I’d think. However, I don’t like him because of an entirely different: the reason why I finally wrote him that email he now can’t read. Perhaps it’s better this way: I hope he takes what I now think of as a Bright Shining Lie to the grave.

It’s probably a futile hope: editorial lines of scientific journals will probably not change any time soon. Sayre’s Law: “Academic politics is much more vicious than real politics.” Sayre thought it was “because the stakes are so small.”

I agree with Oliver Consa here: the latter probably isn’t true. US$600 m projects do warrant a decent PR fight, don’t they? I, therefore, suspect the Mystery Wallahs will prevail. As most – if not all of them – also said they do believe in God, I guess that suits everyone then. :-/

From: Jean Louis Van Belle
Sent: Monday, March 9, 2020 7:09 AM
To: ‘dyson@ias.edu’ <dyson@ias.edu>
Subject: Last man standing…

Dear Professor – I hope this email reaches you. I’ve been thinking of writing you for many years, as you are the ‘last man standing’ of a incredibly smart group of people who basically developed what we now refer to as the Standard Model of physics.

As I am reaching a rather ripe old age myself now – but still trying to establish what, in my world (which is consulting and finance), is referred to as some kind of ‘basic version of truth’ – there are many topics and questions I would want to ask, but I’ll reduce them to one very simple question on the enclosed paper, which was written by a very smart young man: Dr. Oliver Consa (Something is rotten in the state of QED, Feb 2020).

The question is this: what do you think of Dr. Consa’s ‘version of truth’?

Kindest regards – Jean Louis

Jean Louis Van Belle
Phone: +32 (0)471 079 892
Skype ID: jean.louis.van.belle
Email: jeanlouisvanbelle@outlook.com
LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/jean-louis-van-belle-85b74b7a/
Blog: https://readingfeynman.org/
viXra org: https://vixra.org/author/jean_louis_van_belle
Academia.edu: https://independent.academia.edu/JeanLouisVanBelle

None of us is as smart as all of us.” (Kenneth Blanchard)

Another catastrophe in the making?

It’s funny, but I feel the scientific atmosphere may resemble that of the end of the 19th century: what was supposed to be the triumph of classical physics (with Maxwell publishing his famous equations of electromagnetism) suddenly turned into a catastrophe: the ultraviolet catastrophe, to be precise. And it required an Einstein to publish a radical theory altering the world view (relativity theory). I feel a similar catastrophe – and a better theory of quantum mechanics as well, of course! – may be in the making. Hence, I couldn’t restrain myself and thought it’s time for some fun. So I wrote the following letter to the Nobel Prize Committee.

Let’s see if they react. I don’t think so, but then one never knows, right? 🙂

QUOTE

Dear Sir/Madam – I am just an amateur physicist but, having followed the popular physics scene for many years now, I feel I must alert you to a growing feeling that the Nobel Prize Committee may have been awarded to some rather ‘non-productive forms of atomic theory’ lately.

The mainstream interpretation of quantum physics has been criticized severely, both by professional as well as amateur physicists (for a very professional critique, see – for example – the latest article by Dr. Consa: https://vixra.org/pdf/2002.0011v1.pdf).

Also, awarding a Nobel Prize because experiments reveal ‘signature signals’ of the hypothesized W/Z bosons, quarks and/or Higgs particles do not confirm these ‘intermediate vector bosons’ or these (virtual and non-virtual) quarks and gluons actually exist. There are also other credible ‘mechanisms’ explaining mass and/or the anomalous magnetic moment (the ring current model of electrons and protons, on which I publish myself (see: https://vixra.org/pdf/2002.0160v1.pdf and https://vixra.org/pdf/2003.0094v1.pdf) is just one example of what I think of as credible alternative explanations).

To many of my colleagues – amateur physicists just like me – it feels like the Nobel Prize Committee has really been in a hurry to ‘consecrate’ the Standard Model asap. If this is to confirm the ‘triumph’ of the mainstream interpretation of physics, then I am afraid the effect is just the opposite.

This is just an opinion, of course – but I just wanted to alert you to it – because the unease with the ‘Standard Model’ seems to be spreading quite rapidly lately and has become very palpable, I would think. In this regard, I refer to books such as Hossenfelder’s ‘Lost in Math?’ and other ‘mainstream researchers challenging other mainstream researchers.’

Kindest regards – Jean Louis

Jean Louis Van Belle
Phone: +32 (0)471 079 892
Skype ID: jean.louis.van.belle
Email: jeanlouisvanbelle@outlook.com
LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/jean-louis-van-belle-85b74b7a/
Blog: https://readingfeynman.org/
viXra org: https://vixra.org/author/jean_louis_van_belle
Academia.edu: https://independent.academia.edu/JeanLouisVanBelle

None of us is as smart as all of us.” (Kenneth Blanchard)

UNQUOTE

Mainstream QM: A Bright Shining Lie

Yesterday night, I got this email from a very bright young physicist: Dr. Oliver Consa. He is someone who – unlike me – does have the required Dr and PhD credentials in physics (I have a drs. title in economics) – and the patience that goes with it – to make some more authoritative statements in the weird world of quantum mechanics. I recommend you click the link in the email (copied below) and read the paper. Please do it! 

It is just 12 pages, and it is all extremely revealing. Very discomforting, actually, in light of all the other revelations on fake news in other spheres of life.

Many of us – and, here, I just refer to those who are reading my post – all sort of suspected that some ‘inner circle’ in the academic circuit had cooked things up:the Mystery Wallahs, as I refer to them now. Dr. Consa’s paper shows our suspicion is well-founded.

QUOTE

Dear fellow scientist,

I send you this mail because you have been skeptical about Foundations of Physics. I think that this new paper will be of your interest. Feel free to share it with your colleagues or publish it on the web. I consider it important that this paper serves to open a public debate on this subject.

Something is Rotten in the State of QED
https://vixra.org/pdf/2002.0011v1.pdf

Abstract
“Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is considered the most accurate theory in the history of science. However, this precision is based on a single experimental value: the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron (g-factor). An examination of QED history reveals that this value was obtained using illegitimate mathematical traps, manipulations and tricks. These traps included the fraud of Kroll & Karplus, who acknowledged that they lied in their presentation of the most relevant calculation in QED history. As we will demonstrate in this paper, the Kroll & Karplus scandal was not a unique event. Instead, the scandal represented the fraudulent manner in which physics has been conducted from the creation of QED through today.”  (12 pag.)

Best Regards,
Oliver Consa
oliver.consa@gmail.com

UNQUOTE

A theory of matter-particles

Pre-scriptum (PS), added on 6 March 2020: The ideas below also naturally lead to a theory about what a neutrino might actually be. As such, it’s a complete ‘alternative’ Theory of Everything. I uploaded the basics of such theory on my academia.edu site. For those who do not want to log on to academia.edu, you can also find the paper on my author’s page on Phil Gibb’s site.

Text:

We were rather tame in our last paper on the oscillator model of an electron. We basically took some philosophical distance from it by stating we should probably only think of it as a mathematical equivalent to Hestenes’ concept of the electron as a superconducting loop. However, deep inside, we feel we should not be invoking Maxwell’s laws of electrodynamics to explain what a proton and an electron might actually be. The basics of the ring current model can be summed up in one simple equation:

c = a·ω

This is the formula for the tangential velocity. Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence relation and the Planck-Einstein relation explain everything else[1], as evidenced by the fact that we can immediately derive the Compton radius of an electron from these three equations, as shown below:F1The reader might think we are just ‘casually connecting formulas’ here[2] but we feel we have a full-blown theory of the electron here: simple and consistent. The geometry of the model is visualized below. We think of an electron (and a proton) as consisting of a pointlike elementary charge – pointlike but not dimensionless[3] – moving about at (nearly) the speed of light around the center of its motion.

Picture1

The relation works perfectly well for the electron. However, when applying the a = ħ/mc radius formula to a proton, we get a value which is about 1/4 of the measured proton radius: about 0.21 fm, as opposed to the 0.83-0.84 fm charge radius which was established by Professors Pohl, Gasparan and others over the past decade.[4] In our papers on the proton radius[5],  we motivated the 1/4 factor by referring to the energy equipartition theorem and assuming energy is, somehow, equally split over electromagnetic field energy and the kinetic energy in the motion of the zbw charge. However, the reader must have had the same feeling as we had: these assumptions are rather ad hoc. We, therefore, propose something more radical:

When considering systems (e.g. electron orbitals) and excited states of particles, angular momentum comes in units (nearly) equal to ħ, but when considering the internal structure of elementary particles, (orbital) angular momentum comes in an integer fraction of ħ. This fraction is 1/2 for the electron[6] and 1/4 for the proton.

Let us write this out for the proton radius:F2What are the implications for the assumed centripetal force keeping the elementary charge in motion? The centripetal acceleration is equal to ac = vt2/a = a·ω2. It is probably useful to remind ourselves how we get this result so as to make sure our calculations are relativistically correct. The position vector r (which describes the position of the zbw charge) has a horizontal and a vertical component: x = a·cos(ωt) and y = a·sin(ωt). We can now calculate the two components of the (tangential) velocity vector v = dr/dt as vx = –a·ω·sin(ωt) and vy y = –a· ω·cos(ωt) and, in the next step, the components of the (centripetal) acceleration vector ac: ax = –a·ω2·cos(ωt) and ay = –a·ω2·sin(ωt). The magnitude of this vector is then calculated as follows:

ac2 = ax2 + ay2a2·ω4·cos2(ωt) + a2·ω4·sin2(ωt) = a2·ω4ac = a·ω2 = vt2/a

Now, Newton’s force law tells us that the magnitude of the centripetal force will be equal to:

F = mγ·ac = mγ·a·ω2

As usual, the mγ factor is, once again, the effective mass of the zbw charge as it zitters around the center of its motion at (nearly) the speed of light: it is half the electron mass.[7] If we denote the centripetal force inside the electron as Fe, we can relate it to the electron mass me as follows:F3Assuming our logic in regard to the effective mass of the zbw charge inside a proton is also valid – and using the 4E = ħω and a = ħ/4mc relations – we get the following equation for the centripetal force inside of a proton:
F4How should we think of this? In our oscillator model, we think of the centripetal force as a restoring force. This force depends linearly on the displacement from the center and the (linear) proportionality constant is usually written as k. Hence, we can write Fe and Fp as Fe = -kex and Fp = -kpx respectively. Taking the ratio of both so as to have an idea of the respective strength of both forces, we get this:F5

The ap and ae are acceleration vectors – not the radius. The equation above seems to tell us that the centripetal force inside of a proton gives the zbw charge inside – which is nothing but the elementary charge, of course – an acceleration that is four times that of what might be going on inside the electron.

Nice, but how meaningful are these relations, really? If we would be thinking of the centripetal or restoring force as modeling some elasticity of spacetime – the guts intuition behind far more complicated string theories of matter – then we may think of distinguishing between a fundamental frequency and higher-level harmonics or overtones.[8] We will leave our reflections at that for the time being.

We should add one more note, however. We only talked about the electron and the proton here. What about other particles, such as neutrons or mesons? We do not consider these to be elementary because they are not stable: we think they are not stable because the Planck-Einstein relation is slightly off, which causes them to disintegrate into what we’ve been trying to model here: stable stuff. As for the process of their disintegration, we think the approach that was taken by Gell-Man and others[9] is not productive: inventing new quantities that are supposedly being conserved – such as strangeness – is… Well… As strange as it sounds. We, therefore, think the concept of quarks confuses rather than illuminates the search for a truthful theory of matter.

Jean Louis Van Belle, 6 March 2020

[1] In this paper, we make abstraction of the anomaly, which is related to the zbw charge having a (tiny) spatial dimension.

[2] We had a signed contract with the IOP and WSP scientific publishing houses for our manuscript on a realist interpretation of quantum mechanics (https://vixra.org/abs/1901.0105) which was shot down by this simple comment. We have basically stopped tried convincing mainstream academics from that point onwards.

[3] See footnote 1.

[4] See our paper on the proton radius (https://vixra.org/abs/2002.0160).

[5] See reference above.

[6] The reader may wonder why we did not present the ½ fraction is the first set of equations (calculation of the electron radius). We refer him or her to our previous paper on the effective mass of the zbw charge (https://vixra.org/abs/2003.0094). The 1/2 factor appears when considering orbital angular momentum only.

[7] The reader may not be familiar with the concept of the effective mass of an electron but it pops up very naturally in the quantum-mechanical analysis of the linear motion of electrons. Feynman, for example, gets the equation out of a quantum-mechanical analysis of how an electron could move along a line of atoms in a crystal lattice. See: Feynman’s Lectures, Vol. III, Chapter 16: The Dependence of Amplitudes on Position (https://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu/III_16.html). We think of the effective mass of the electron as the relativistic mass of the zbw charge as it whizzes about at nearly the speed of light. The rest mass of the zbw charge itself is close to – but also not quite equal to – zero. Indeed, based on the measured anomalous magnetic moment, we calculated the rest mass of the zbw charge as being equal to about 3.4% of the electron rest mass (https://vixra.org/abs/2002.0315).

[8] For a basic introduction, see my blog posts on modes or on music and physics (e.g. https://readingfeynman.org/2015/08/08/modes-and-music/).

[9] See, for example, the analysis of kaons (K-mesons) in Feynman’s Lectures, Vol. III, Chapter 11, section 5 (https://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu/III_11.html#Ch11-S5).